English Lean Management

What is TPM? How to Implement TPM? Benefits of implementing TPM. Best TPM Books

How to Implement TPM
Written by Aryan Viswakarma

History of TPM

Between 1950 and 1970, Seiichi Nakajima invented TPM in Japan. On the other hand, preventive maintenance is a concept that originated in the United States. In 1960, Nippondenso, a Toyota components company, was the first to implement plant-wide preventive maintenance. They were the very first recipients of the PM award.

The JIPM created a TPM standard that is used all over the world. As a result, TPM’s father, Seiichi Nakajima, is revered. The concept of preventive maintenance is that operators build things with machines, and the maintenance team is in charge of keeping them operating.

The purpose of productive maintenance is to make plants and equipment more efficient in order to accomplish the intended results.

What is TPM?

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a strategy of physical asset management that focuses on maintaining and upgrading manufacturing machines in order to reduce an organization’s operating costs. It’s a method for decreasing waste related to manufacturing equipment and machinery.

To spot problems sooner, TPM focuses on integrating the machine operator in routine checks and cleaning of the machine. Reduced machine “downtime” owing to unforeseen faults, maximizing a machine’s capabilities, and tracking life cycle costs are among the other areas of focus.

In a word, total productive maintenance (TPM) is the discipline of getting the most out of machines and equipment.

TPM Pillars

TPM is based on Nakajima’s 5-S method and has eight pillars. TPM is built on the 5S foundation (Sort, Set in Order, Shine, Standardize, and Sustain). The eight pillars of total productive maintenance rely on proactive and preventative maintenance techniques to increase equipment reliability.

The eight pillars of TPM in administration are autonomous maintenance, targeted improvement (kaizen), planned maintenance, quality management, early equipment management, training and education, safety, health, and the environment, as well as TPM in administration. Let’s take a deeper look at each of the pillars separately.

1. Autonomous Maintenance

Autonomous maintenance entails thoroughly training and entirely entrusting your personnel with normal maintenance tasks such as cleaning, lubricating, and inspecting. This instills a sense of ownership in machine operators and allows them to learn more about their machines.

It also ensures that the machinery is always clean and oiled, aids in the early detection of problems before they turn into failures, and frees up maintenance personnel to focus on higher-level jobs. Autonomous maintenance can be defined in a few phrases. Equipment operators are in charge of simple preventive maintenance tasks.

2. Focused Maintenance:

The core of targeted improvement is the Japanese term “kaizen,” which means “improvement.” In manufacturing, kaizen refers to the constant improvement of operations and processes. Focused improvement looks at the entire process and makes recommendations for how to enhance it.

To achieve regular, incremental improvements to equipment operating processes, TPM requires small teams to develop a proactive mindset of working together. It is feasible to uncover recurring problems by diversifying team members through cross-functional brainstorming. It also collects comments from all throughout the company, allowing teams to observe how processes affect other regions.

Furthermore, focused improvement increases efficiency by lowering product faults and reducing the number of procedures, as well as increasing safety by assessing the risks connected with each individual action. Finally, targeted improvement ensures that gains are consistent, repeatable, and long-term.

 3. Planned Maintenance:

Planned maintenance comprises studying metrics such as failure rates and previous downtime, then scheduling maintenance work around these expected or measured failure rates or downtime times.

In other words, because equipment maintenance must be completed at a specific time, you can plan it when the equipment is idle or generating at a lower capacity, guaranteeing that production is not affected. Furthermore, planned maintenance enables inventory to be built up in advance of scheduled maintenance.

Because you’ll know when each piece of equipment needs to be repaired, having this inventory on hand will help you avoid any production losses caused by maintenance.

4. Early Equipment Management:

The TPM pillar of early equipment management uses total productive maintenance’s practical expertise and broad understanding of industrial equipment to the design of new equipment. By incorporating feedback from those who use the equipment the most, suppliers can improve maintainability and the way the machine operates in future designs.

When discussing equipment design, it’s critical to examine matters like cleaning and lubrication ease, part accessibility, ergonomically situating controls in a way that is pleasant for the operator, how changeovers happen, and safety measures.

5. Quality Maintenance:

If the quality of the work you’re doing isn’t up to par, all of your maintenance planning and strategizing will be for naught. In the manufacturing process, the quality maintenance pillar focuses on discovering and preventing design mistakes.

It accomplishes this by using root cause analysis to identify and eliminate recurring sources of errors (particularly, the “5 Whys”). By proactively identifying the source of errors or faults, processes become more dependable, resulting in goods that fulfill criteria the first time.

The most important benefit of quality maintenance is that it prevents defective items from progressing farther down the line, potentially causing a lot of rework.

6. Safety, Health, and environment:

Employees can perform their obligations without jeopardizing their health if they work in a safe workplace. It’s important to build a productive workplace, but it shouldn’t come at the expense of an employee’s safety and health.

To achieve this, all TPM solutions must include safety, health, and the environment at all times. Apart from the obvious benefits, employees’ attitudes improve when they arrive at work each day in a safe workplace since they are not concerned about this critical component. This could result in a large increase in output. During the early stages of the project, safety should be a top priority.

7. Training and education: 

A lack of equipment competence might undermine a TPM program. Training and education are beneficial to all staff, including operators, managers, and maintenance workers. They’re made to make sure that everyone knows the TPM process and that any knowledge gaps are filled so that TPM goals may be reached.

Operators learn how to maintain equipment and identify problems before they become serious in this class. The maintenance crew learns how to implement a proactive and preventative maintenance schedule, while the managers study TPM principles, employee development, and coaching. Personnel can learn more about operating procedures by using single-point lessons placed on or near the equipment.

8. TPM in administration:  

The quality of a TPM program is determined by the sum of its parts. Total productive maintenance should extend beyond the plant floor by identifying and eliminating waste in administrative processes. In order to assist production, this requires enhancing order processing, procurement, and scheduling.

Administrative operations must be efficient and waste-free because they are typically the first stage in the manufacturing process. If order-processing activities are enhanced, for example, the material is supplied to the plant floor faster and with fewer errors, lowering the risk of downtime while missing components are identified.

How to implement TPM Pillars

Select a Pilot Area

You could focus on an upgradeable piece of equipment or a manufacturing area that has been identified as problematic and requires immediate attention in order to increase profitability. In this initial step of the TPM process, identify SMART targets: Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Timed goals are those that are specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and time.

•Which is the most inconvenient? Fixing the equipment that creates the most problems for operators will be much welcomed, boosting TPM program support. However, this technique may not bring as much immediate gratification as the previous one, and getting a quick result from solving an unresolved problem may be difficult, resulting in boredom.

•Which of the following is the easiest to improve? Selecting the easiest to change equipment provides quick and favorable results, but it does not put the TPM process to the test as rigorously as the other two options.

Focus on restoring specific pieces of equipment to functioning order:

Establish a current productivity baseline once your pilot area has been selected. Prepare your TPM implementation strategy by organizing and defining it. Make use of the 5S methodology (Sort, Set, Shine, Standardize, Sustain). Implementing an autonomous maintenance program and, where appropriate, giving training to equipment operators should be high on the priority list.

Machine Maintenance

Allowing employees to participate in simple maintenance operations on a regular basis can lengthen equipment lifespans and find mechanical issues early, much like a car owner can save a significant amount on repair costs by performing basic routine maintenance.

•Taking photographs of the location and the current status of the equipment, then posting them on your project board; photographing and posting updates to the equipment and surrounding area on the project board.

• Maintaining a list of the tools and components that you use on a regular basis (a shadow board with tool outlines is a popular option).

• Creating a standardized 5-S work method to keep the operation running smoothly.

• Cleaning up the area by removing any unnecessary tools, trash, or anything else that could be considered trash, as well as completely cleaning the equipment and surrounding area.

Begin by evaluating the overall effectiveness of the device (OEE)

Regardless of how you keep track of OEE, it’s vital that unexpected halt periods are logged and a rationale given for each occurrence. Create a category labeled “unknown reason” or “unallocated stop time” for situations where the operator is unsure of the halt cause. You should collect data for at least two weeks to get an accurate portrayal of unexpected halt time and a good picture of how short stops and slow cycles affect productivity.

Below is an example of a top 5 loss chart in its most basic form. Each loss is classified and listed in descending order, from the most downtime-inducing to the least downtime-inducing.

Reduce or eliminate main sources of loss

At this step, you’ll need to assemble a cross-functional team of 4 to 6 employees to investigate one key reason for downtime. This group will plan a strategy for removing the cause of loss and set aside time to carry it out.

If regular filler jams are generating considerable losses, for example, this team will assess current operator methods and repair options, design a strategy to eradicate the jams, and schedule time to put the strategy into action. They will continue to monitor OEE and, if necessary, restart the process once the allocated task has been completed.

Implement a well-organized maintenance programme

This phase’s purpose is to avoid any breakdowns or halts. Develop a preventative maintenance schedule that may be followed at regular intervals to identify significant “pain points” that could contribute to equipment failure. Finally, create a feedback mechanism that will allow you to track your program’s effectiveness over time. You can enhance maintenance intervals by designing a feedback system.

Operators will need to keep track of replacement information as well as component status at the time of replacement on log sheets for each wear-and-failure-prone component.

Use specific TPM principles as needed

Early equipment management should be considered while building and/or installing new machinery for the manufacturing floor, for example. Improved accessibility, faster cleaning and lubrication procedures, and the addition of safety features should all be considered when designing new equipment.

However, if there are issues about procurement or delays in processing work orders, these administrative bottlenecks should be addressed as soon as feasible.

Benefits of Implementing TPM


The basic goal of the TPM strategy is to attain “perfect production,” as it’s known. To put it another way, any company that employs TPM strives for zero defects, breakdowns, or accidents. As a result, you may need to put quality ahead of quantity and efficiency ahead of output.

One method available to firms undertaking productive maintenance is measuring overall equipment effectiveness (OEE). This figure, which is calculated by adding Availability x Performance x Quality = OEE, helps manufacturers find areas where they may improve the efficacy and efficiency of their operations. Efficacy and efficiency in operations.

Safe Environment:

TPM is built on the structured management framework of Lean’s 5S methodology. The five things to consider are sorting, putting things in order, shining, standardizing, and sustaining. The five criteria all contribute to the conclusion that keeping equipment and machinery clean, organized, and in good working order can improve workplace safety.

TPM’s focus on proactive and preventative maintenance helps equipment last longer while also minimizing workplace turmoil. It also makes designing designs that increase productivity, efficiency and flow easier. At all levels, all of these traits serve as the foundation for worker safety.


To effectively implement lean manufacturing, you’ll need employees at all levels of your company to fully embrace the concept. Employees are less likely to resist changes if the results are beneficial. TPM is similar in many ways: it imposes a responsibility on employees to maintain their equipment through its principles. As a result, they may feel proud of and responsible for their work.

TPM’s preventative actions lead to fewer equipment failures and less inconvenient downtime. As a result of these accomplishments, your employees’ commitment to the TPM philosophy will only expand.

Better Customer Satisfaction:

Customer satisfaction is a term used to define a customer’s level of satisfaction with a product or service. Increased: Productive maintenance provides a safe work environment, high staff morale, and high output. Many would argue, however, that customer enjoyment and experience are more important in the long term. The TPM pillar of quality maintenance enables quality improvements to be integrated into the manufacturing process.

As a result, there are fewer reworks and errors, as well as higher output and quality. This is a winning mix when combined with solid machinery and years of experience.


With industry competitiveness at an all-time high, TPM may be the only thing keeping some companies from going bankrupt. It has been proven to be an effective program. It has a wide range of applications, including industrial facilities, construction, building maintenance, transportation, and many more.

Employees must be informed and convinced that TPM is more than a “program of the month,” and that management is totally committed to the program and its lengthy implementation period. A very high rate of return on investment can be predicted if everyone who participates in a TPM program does their part.

Recommended Best TPM Books

This was the first book in English on total productive maintenance (TPM) – a system that has been shown to reduce breakdowns to almost zero and increase worker productivity by as much as 150 percent.

Uptime describes the combination of activities that deliver fewer breakdowns, improved productive capacity, lower costs, and better environmental performance. The bestselling second edition of Uptime has been used as a textbook on maintenance management in several postsecondary institutions and by many companies as the model framework for their maintenance management programs.

Related Articles:

1.What is Pareto Chart? What is the 80/20 rule? How to create a Pareto chart? Benefits of using Pareto Chart

2. लेयर्ड प्रोसेस ऑडिट क्या है? लेयर्ड प्रोसेस ऑडिट कैसे लागू करें? WHAT IS LAYERED PROCESS AUDIT? HOW TO IMPLEMENT LAYERED PROCESS AUDIT?)

3. Top 6 Method Of Purchasing Materials

4. What is the Production Part Approval Process (PPAP)? What are Important PPAP Components?

Quality HUB India offered Online Courses on ‘Related subject“

Hindi Version

  1. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) and Basics of Maintenance Management
  2. Advanced Value Stream Mapping (VSM)
  3. Certified ‘Lean Expert – Gold Level’ – Level 3
  4. Certified ‘Lean Expert – Silver Level’ – Level 2
  5. Basics of Lean Manufacturing and Toyota Production System (TPS)
  6. Advanced Product Quality Planning(APQP)+ Production Part Approval Process (PPAP)
  7. Statistical Process Control (SPC)
  8. Measurement System Analysis (MSA) +Statistical Process Control(SPC)
  9. Failure Mode & Effects Analysis (FMEA) -Latest Edition (AIAG+VDA)
  10. Complete Core Tool (APQP+PPAP+MSA+SPC+FMEA)

English Version

  1. Advanced Product Quality Planning(APQP)
  2. Production Part Approval Process (PPAP)
  3. Advanced Product Quality Planning(APQP)+ Production Part Approval Process (PPAP)
  4. Statistical Process Control (SPC)
  5. Measurement System Analysis (MSA)
  6. Failure Mode & Effects Analysis (FMEA) -Latest Edition (AIAG+VDA)
  7. Complete Core Tool (APQP+PPAP+MSA+SPC+FMEA)

1 Comment

Leave a Comment